Eastern Questions[ edit ] At the beginning of the 19th century the Ottoman Empire included all of the Balkan Peninsula south to the southern edge of the Hungarian Plain , but by had lost all of it except Constantinople and Eastern Thrace to the rise of Balkan nationalism , which saw the independence of Greece , Serbia , the Danubian Principalities and Bulgaria. Up until the Ottomans retained a band of territory including Albania , Macedonia and Southern Thrace , which were lost in the two Balkan Wars of — The Near East as defined as the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the Eastern Question The Ottoman Empire, believed to be about to collapse, was portrayed in the press as the ” sick man of Europe “. The Balkan states, with the partial exception of Bosnia and Albania , were primarily Christian, as was the Arab zone of Lebanon. Starting in the Ottomans struck at the Armenians on the explicit grounds that they were a non-Muslim people and as such were a potential threat to the Muslim empire within which they resided[ citation needed ]. The Hamidian Massacres aroused the indignation of the entire Christian world. Relations of minorities within the Ottoman Empire and the disposition of former Ottoman lands became known as the ” Eastern Question “, as the Ottomans were on the east of Europe.
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Ancient Middle East, history of the region from prehistoric times to the rise of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and other areas. Evolution of Middle Eastern civilizations The high antiquity of civilization in the Middle East is largely due to the existence of convenient land bridges and easy sea lanes passable in summer or winter, in dry or wet seasons.
Movement of large numbers of people north of the Caspian Sea was virtually impossible in winter, owing to the severity of the climate; central Eurasia was often too dry in summer. Land passage between Asia and Africa was in early times limited to narrow strips of land in the Isthmus of Suez. Large-scale desert travel was limited to special routes in Iran and in North Africa , both east and west of the Nile Valley.
The ancient Middle East.
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Ancient Middle East
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Also, on a number of occasions in the early 19th century, American and British warships had to attack the Barbary pirates to stop their piracy and recover thousands of enslaved Europeans and Americans.
See Article History Middle Eastern religion, any of the religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices developed in the ancient Middle East extending geographically from Iran to Egypt and from Anatolia and the Aegean Sea to the Arabian Peninsula and temporally from about to bc, when Alexander the Great conquered much of the area. They have had an enduring influence on Western civilization.
While this article treats only those religions of Middle Eastern antiquity that have not survived to modern times, special attention is given in the introduction to their role as antecedents of the major Western religions i. General considerations The ancient Middle East constituted an ecumene. Manufacturing and services tended to be monopolized by professional guilds , including religious personnel specializing in sacrifices, oracles, divination, and other kinds of priestcraft.
The mobility of such guilds throughout the entire area helps to explain the spread of specific religious ideas and techniques over great distances. Just as guild potters spread ceramic forms and methods, so also guild priests spread their religious concepts and practices from the Indian Ocean to the Aegean Sea, and from the Nile River to Central Asia.
The Greek poet Homer , in the Odyssey , noted the mobility of guildsmen, mentioning religious personnel as well as architects, physicians, and minstrels.
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Britain decided to relinquish its mandate over Palestine and requested that the recently established United Nations determine the future of the country.
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Greater Middle East
Click to view or download a PDF of the Primer. The conflict between Palestinian Arabs and Zionist now Israeli Jews is a modern phenomenon, dating to the end of the nineteenth century. Although the two groups have different religions Palestinians include Muslims, Christians and Druze , religious differences are not the cause of the strife. The conflict began as a struggle over land. From the end of World War I until , the area that both groups claimed was known internationally as Palestine.
Following the war of — , this land was divided into three parts:
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Middle Eastern religion
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Palestinian Arab claims to the land are based on their continuous residence in the country for hundreds of years and the fact that they represented the demographic majority until
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