The History Learning Site, 25 May In , Spain was a constitutional monarchy. However, the government was inefficient and corrupt. In , an army was sent to Spanish Morocco to put down a rebellion. In , Spain experienced a bloodless coup when Alfonso agreed that General Primo de Rivera should take control of Spain. He ruled as a military dictator until However, Rivera did not display the classic features of a dictator. He introduced public works schemes building roads and irrigating the land. Industrial production increased by three times from to Rivera also ended the rebellion in Morocco in


These are external links and will open in a new window Close share panel A museum has opened in the Spanish city of Pamplona that brings together the performing arts, painting, sculpture and one of Spain’s largest collection of photographs, dating back to the 19th Century. The Museum University of Navarra , built by celebrated Spanish architect Rafael Moneo, features previously unseen works by Picasso, Rothko and Kandinsky and also one of Spain’s largest collections of photos from the 19th Century.

Among the collection are images, many previously unseen, from two of the most celebrated photojournalists of the Spanish Civil War, Agusti Centelles and Hungarian-born Robert Capa The war – often referred to as the “dress rehearsal” for WW2 – pitted right-wing Nationalists against left-wing Republicans, culminating in victory for the fascist forces of General Franco.

Letter, 6 December

The long Spanish Civil War began. According to the left, this was a classic conflict between socialism and fascism. Orwell, and others, saw Bolsheviks in Spain murderously purge all rivals on the left during the war. The greater lesson of this war is that the “left” is simply a gang of corrupt power-junkies. The politically correct history given us is grotesquely false. Foss and Gerahty during the war wrote of Franco: At the outside, when the present struggle broke out, there were not more than 8, Falangistas in Spain, and even that party was not ‘Fascist'” [ii] and they note that if Franco wins:

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia

Jon Bergeron Jon is a part time misanthrope, full time American. Jon loathes modern academia, art, culture, literature, politics, television, and everything on god’s green earth that has been inundated with boring, predictable, impotent, vapid Cultural Marxist horseshit which, mind you, is totally void of a single individual thought. Jon just realized he is a full time misanthrope.

Anyways, Jon prays for this to change one day and something new to come along. Until then, Jon remains pessimistic with a loaded.

View the catalog record [Confederate States of America.

The countryside is in open revolt, and the army is powerless to suppress it. In Colombian history and culture, the killings are known as La Violencia The Violence, —58 ; most of the people killed were peasants and laborers in rural Colombia. The Liberal and the Conservative parties agreed to alternate in the exercise of government power by presenting a joint National Front candidate to each election and restricting the participation of other political movements. The pact was ratified as a constitutional amendment by a national plebiscite on 1 December and was supported by the Church as well as Colombia’s business leaders.

The initial power-sharing agreement was effective until ; nonetheless, with modifications, the Liberal—Conservative bipartisan system lasted until The plan promoted industrial farming that would produce great yields of agricultural and animal products for worldwide exportation, while the Colombian government would provide subsidies to large-scale private farms. The AED policy came at the expense of the small-scale family farms that only yielded food supplies for local consumption.

Based on a legalistic interpretation of what constituted "efficient use” of the land, thousands of peasants were forcefully evicted from their farms and migrated to the cities, where they became part of the industrial labor pool. In , the dispossession of farmland had produced 40, landless families and by their numbers amounted to , throughout Colombia. Marquetalia Republic Communists were active throughout rural and urban Colombia in the period immediately following World War I.

The PCC began establishing "peasant leagues” in rural areas and "popular fronts” in urban areas, calling for improved living and working conditions, education, and rights for the working class. These groups began networking together to present a defensive front against the state-supported violence of large landholders. The Lleras government attempted unsuccessfully to attack the communities to drive out the guerrillas, due to fears that "a Cuban-style revolutionary situation might develop”.

After the failed attacks, several army outposts were set up in the area.

The Causes of the Spanish Civil War

By , their violent policies resulted in most of their leaders being arrested and jailed. At the time it had about members. The group used two different flags. One had a black-white-red horizontal triband with a rune-like "S” in the center; the other was a variant of the National Socialist flag called the "reverse swastika.

Squint your eyes and you’ll begin to make out the hidden white swastika.

Despite heavy losses Russian forces fall back in good order from Poland to a line along the Dvina river and the Pripyet Marshes, shortening the front and also losing the ‘dead weight’ of ethnic-Polish forces reluctant to fight and eager to surrender.

Melania ‘skipped Davos because she hates Donald’, claims Jimmy Kimmel Spanish national police have stormed ministries and buildings belonging to Catalonia’s regional government to put a stop to the region’s independence referendum. The Guardia Civil, which acts with the authority of Madrid’s interior ministry, is searching for evidence regarding the planned 1 October referendum on Catalan independence, which Spain’s Constitutional Court has declared illegal.

In the early hours of the morning armed officers arrived at various Catalan ministries, including the economy department, foreign affairs department, and social affairs department, Spanish media reports. The arrests come as the mayors of Catalan towns who back the referendum were yesterday questioned by state prosecutors.

Pro-independence crowds have formed outside the regional ministries in support of the provincial government and in protest against the raids and searches. On Tuesday police searched for election material including ballot boxes, voting papers and campaign leaflets – raiding private courier companies in the process. After news of the raids broke on Wednesday, separatist political parties, as well as Podemos, cancelled all their planned political events for the rest of the day.

The Partido Popular leads us to an authoritarian regression that cannot be tolerated,” a spokesperson for Podemos said on social media. Right-wing parties however endorsed the police operation.

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Click on any thumbnail for a large image I think that when I started mixing blackberry wine with moonshine is when "the mule threw Luther”!!! After 40 years, we are now on-line, at shows, and open by appointment only. These animals got caught in the snow storm, but still had to find something to eat! Thanks to our good buddy, Charlie, out in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming for some outstanding wildlife photographs.

It is amazing to me how many Civil War and history enthusiasts also love the wildlife and outdoors.

A few years back, they were thought to be near extinction, but there have been numerous sightings over the last several years verified by the wildlife agencies.

Towards the end of The Edwardian Era , between , a war broke out between two alliances: These two power blocs comprised the richest and most powerful empires and nation-states on earth, commanding empires in Europe and abroad, leading to the biggest, bloodiest, most expensive, most disruptive, most damaging and most traumatizing war the world had ever seen.

It left millions dead, maimed, shell-shocked, dispossessed, impoverished, starving and bitter. It forever shattered among a good contingent of individuals across multiple political spectrums the notion that War Is Glorious and through mechanized warfare unleashed violence on the human body and mind, on such a scale, that it could no longer be hidden, romanticized, or slid under the carpet from public eyes, the way violence in earlier wars was managed by nation states and Propaganda Machine.

The nature of the war is such that its end is usually celebrated in multiple countries as Armistice Day, or ceasefire, rather than victory. Most were grateful the war finally ended and that the ones who survived could go home, with the really lucky ones going back uninjured. The war is considered to be the true beginning of The 20th Century , severing continuity with the conformity, stability, and in retrospect, the comforting illusions of progress and decency that people ascribed to European civilization.

Four of Europe’s great empires Imperial Germany , Austria-Hungary , Tsarist Russia , Ottoman Empire cracked apart, resulting in the liberation and formation of new nations, culminating in a revolution of a size and scale not seen since The empires and nations that did come out status quo ante bellum, such as The British Empire and The French Colonial Empire found their power and uncontested influence weakened and challenged, both at home, and in their colonies, marking the beginning of the end of the age of empires that had defined the 19th Century, with the United States of America taking the role of a global leader for the first time, under President Woodrow Wilson.

After the sequel broke out, the term "The First World War” naturally became standard, this time with full reference to the second. The end of that conflict, followed by the Concert at Vienna in — created a Balance of Power that lasted for almost exactly a hundred years. The hope of the Concert was to contain the specter of revolution that they saw as a threat to national and domestic stability. The gradual fracturing of that alliance towards the end of the century ultimately led to the return of revolution and domestic and national instability that in Europe would not heal until the fall of the USSR.

In the case of other parts of the world affected by the war, chiefly the Middle East, that had once formed part of the Ottoman Empire, that instability still remains and persists well into the 21st Century, with no sign of ebbing for several decades past the approaching centennial of armistice.

United Nations News Centre

Letter, 9 April Letter, 20 April Letter, 20 April , from B.

Those victorious at the election then declared Spain a republic and monarchy was abolished.

Those in favour of reforming Spain’s government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of , sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain and to establish a liberal state. There was little development of a bourgeois industrial or commercial class. The land-based oligarchy remained powerful; a small number of people held large estates called latifundia as well as all the important government positions.

Two distinct factors led to the uprisings: In Isabella’s replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy , abdicated owing to increasing political pressure, and the short-lived First Spanish Republic was proclaimed. Following the war, the working class, industrial class, and military united in hopes of removing the corrupt central government, but were unsuccessful. There was little support for the monarchy in the major cities. Consequently, King Alfonso XIII gave in to popular pressure for the establishment of a republic in and called municipal elections for 12 April of that year.

The socialist and liberal republicans won almost all the provincial capitals, and following the resignation of Aznar’s government, King Alfonso XIII fled the country. The government’s slow response disillusioned the right and reinforced their view that the Republic was determined to persecute the church. This led many workers to believe the Spanish Second Republic was just as oppressive as the monarchy and the CNT announced their intention of overthrowing it via revolution.

Spanish Civil War: Rediscovered photos in Navarra museum

This shot is described as British in origin by the author. Original patina, square bar. This shot has been in a old Colonial New York State collection.

The Catalanides have historically separated the industrial towns of the coast from the predominantly agricultural settlements of the hinterlands.

Like most domestic conflicts it was a bitter internecine affair, full of propaganda, attrition and brutality against prisoners and civilians. From the beginning of the s, Spain had endured a turbulent political history. For much of this time it was a constitutional monarchy — but there were repeated attempts to unseat the king and establish a republic. Elections in saw control of the government pass to republicans and socialists. They proposed some radical reforms: These reforms were met with hostility by conservatives — as well as the Spanish military, which had suffered from budget cuts by the new government.

In July , a prominent right-wing politician, Jose Calvo Sotelo, was abducted and murdered, apparently in retaliation for the killing of a socialist police commander.

What are Journalists For?

The Spanish Civil War The right wing, despite assurances of the government to the contrary, saw the victory of the Popular Front as a declaration of war. On July 17, , Gen. Francisco Franco launched his uprising, led by the notorious army garrison in Spanish Morocco. This was an attack not only on the Popular Front government, but also on the working-class organizations that had brought it to power.

After seizing control of the Seville garrison on July 17, Gen.

Image copyright Museo Universidad de Navarra, Vegap Hungarian photographer Robert Capa built his reputation during the Spanish civil war, capturing images of anti-nationalist fighters.

Ethnic division[ edit ] The civil war can be connected to the British colonial amalgamation in of Northern and Southern Nigeria. Intended for better administration due to the close proximity of these protectorates, the change did not account for the great difference in the cultures and religions of the peoples in each area. After the amalgamation, oil was discovered in Eastern Nigeria now southern South Nigeria.

Competition for its associated wealth led to the struggle for control amongst the regions. As southern Nigeria was not as united as the north, it was disadvantaged in the power struggle. Yakubu Gowon emerged as the head of state. During his tenure, killing of Easters in the north continued; several retaliatory actions took place, eventually resulting in the Biafran war.

More than fifty years earlier, the United Kingdom had carved an area out of West Africa containing hundreds of different ethnic groups and unified it, calling it Nigeria. Although these groups have their own homelands, by the s the peoples were dispersed across Nigeria, with all three ethnic groups represented substantially in major cities. When the war broke out in , there were still 5, Igbo in Lagos.

This Sultan was regarded as the source of all political power and religious authority.

The Case Against Libertarian Socialist Rants [Far-Left, Spani[Far-Left, Spanish Civil War, Alt-Right]iv>