Names[ edit ] In Modern Chinese , the name Sichuan means “four rivers “, and in folk etymology this is usually taken to mean the province’s four major rivers: In antiquity, the area of modern Sichuan including the now separated Chongqing Municipality was known to the Chinese as Ba-Shu, in reference to the ancient states of Ba and Shu that once occupied the Sichuan Basin. Shu continues to be used to refer to the Sichuan region all through its history right up to the present day; a number of states formed in the area used the same name, for example the Shu of the Three Kingdoms period, and Former Shu and Later Shu of the Ten Kingdoms period. The region had its own distinct religious beliefs and worldview. Various ores were abundant. The area also formed a stage on the trade routes connecting the Yellow River watershed with India and the west, the primary means of Eurasian trade before the establishment of the overland and maritime Silk Roads under the Han. It was, however, referred to in the Book of Documents as an ally of the Zhou. Excavations by archaeologists in the area yielded few significant finds until when two major sacrificial pits were found with spectacular bronze items as well as artefacts in jade, gold, earthenware, and stone. Qin Dynasty[ edit ] The rulers of the expansionist Qin dynasty , based in present-day Gansu and Shaanxi , were the first strategists to realize that the area’s military importance matched its commercial and agricultural significance.

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South African born geologist, Dr Robyn Pickering, is really fascinated by this question and has been working with the staff and management of Sudwala Caves since last to try and discover the age of the wonderful formations. She is a specialist in dating cave formations, in particular stalagmites, and uses the natural radio-active decay of uranium, which is trapped inside the stalagmites as they form.

As they grow stalagmites record changes in the world outside the cave, mainly variations in the amount of rain and the type of plants growing about the cave.

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Approaching Albert Falls, the uMngeni meanders through grassed farmland, where the riverbanks are treeless or invaded by woody alien plants. Below the Albert Falls, the river traverses deeply dissected terrain, which forms the western edge of the Valley of a Thousand Hills. At Nagle Dam, the river is still at a high elevation m above sea level despite being a mere 50km from the coast.

The main land use types here are forestry in the west and north and cultivated land, especially sugar cane, and feedlots in the Wartburg area. A large part of the area is hot, dry valley bushveld used for subsistence agriculture. The population of the area is 68 Riparian habitat in the upper reaches is badly affected by agriculture and forestry although better in the Umgeni Valley Nature Reserve.

In the lower bushveld reaches, riparian habitat is Good despite vegetation encroachment into the river channel.

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Mpumalanga Dating Zone It represents big social status and they crave for it. Mpumalanga dating zone word was that Selena and Niall have been friends for ages and it was a group dinner mpumalanga dating zone pfft.

The Alpine Forelands lie south of the Granite Plateau.

The national flag, adopted in , consists of a blue-black triangle placed vertical to the hoist and bordered in gold-yellow. Bands of red, white, green, white, and blue appear horizontally. Two anthems are currently in use: The South African rand r is a paper currency of cents. It is used throughout the South African monetary area. There are coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 rand, and notes of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 rand. The metric system is in use.

Movable religious holidays include Good Friday and Ascension; Family Day is a movable secular holiday. Comparatively, the area occupied by South Africa is slightly less than twice the size of the state of Texas. Considered as a whole, South Africa extends 1, km 1, mi ne—sw and 1, km mi se—nw. It is bounded on the n by Botswana and Zimbabwe formerly Rhodesia , on the ne by Mozambique and Swaziland, on the e by the Indian Ocean , on the s by the confluence of the Indian and Atlantic oceans, on the w by the Atlantic Ocean , and on the nw by Namibia.

South Africa also controls two small islands, Prince Edward and Marion, which lie some 1, km 1, mi southeast of Cape Town. South Africa’s capital city, Pretoria, is located in the northeastern part of the country. Parts of Johannesburg are more than 1, m 6, ft above sea level.

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Origins[ edit ] Coal seam fires can be divided into near-surface fires, in which seams extend to the surface and the oxygen required for their ignition comes from the atmosphere, and fires in deep underground mines, where the oxygen comes from the ventilation. Mine fires may begin as a result of an industrial accident, generally involving a gas explosion.

Historically, some mine fires were started when bootleg mining was stopped by authorities, usually by blowing the mine up.

The high crime rate had deterred foreign investment and affected the tourist industry as well.

Actually, that is probably not strictly true, as diamonds might have been discovered earlier by people who never put them to commercial use. But the discovery of the first diamond on the banks of the Orange River near Hope town in sparked off the development of mining in the country. It also sparked off a great many other things, including the establishment of the first stock exchange in Africa in nearby Kimberley in Other by-products of the discovery of diamonds were two universities, those of the Witwatersrand and Pretoria, which had their origins in a school of mines set up in Kimberley in The man who consolidated thousands of small diggings in Kimberley to found De Beers Consolidated Mines was Cecil Rhodes, who then used the profits to extend into gold mining in and around Johannesburg.

Railways from the coast to the interior had to be built to serve the needs of mining. Factories to manufacture everything from steel to dynamite to boots had to be erected. The Rand Water Board was established in the early part of the century. Today South Africa is the 42nd largest economy in the world out of in nominal GDP and 32nd largest in purchasing power parity terms , thanks to the growth and industrialisation triggered by the commercial development of its mineral resources.

Vast quantities have been extracted. South African diamonds adorn the heads of British monarchs when they are crowned. South African coal keeps houses warm and industry turning both in this country and elsewhere. Cars around the world use South African platinum to reduce pollution. South African gold is to be found in the vaults of central banks and perhaps also under mattresses all over the world.

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Prof Dilip Menon Organisation: Centre for Indian Studies in Africa: University of Witwatersrand Position: There’s huge debate in Ghana now instigated by respected Charismatic Bishops, asking for the for the educational system to be altered for the current primary and junior high school system to Ordinary O and Advanced A levels. The bishops say the falling standards of education in the country can largely be attributed to the current system but the two major teacher unions have risen against their proposal.

It’s a major talking point here now 2.

Sichuan was reconstituted in , with Chongqing added in , while the former Xikang province was split between Tibet in the west and Sichuan in the east.

The thirty-two artists who participated were tasked with creating, in a single day, an 8-page comic based on the work of Petrus Nooi, a sculptor who works in concrete and sells his pieces from his yard next to the road that connects Stellenbosch with the informal settlement of Khayelitsha. Critics, artists, writers, thinkers and academics were invited to bring and share a story, and then to relate it to an image, with the intention of exploring parallel experiences, memories and relationships to places.

He was the recipient of the Spier Contemporary Art Award This mentorship was created in to give a woman photographer a grant and mentor’s guidance to produce a body of work. Akona’s mentor was Nadine Hutton. Includes the essay, “Society”, by Akona Kenqu. Includes a short essay by Khanya Mashabela. Alexandra Karakashian was born in in Johannesburg. R90 Catalogue of the exhibition of ceramic artwork, Durban Art Gallery, Text in English and Afrikaans.

Foreword by Thulani Gcabashe.

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It has grown over the years spreading to other parts of the country significantly the Free State. In due course it became a significant contributor to the growth of the gross domestic product of South Africa and rewarded handsomely those who invested in it. The South African currency was for a long time based to a large extent on the value of this internationally sought precious metal. As this case demonstrates, simultaneous with that growth, the industry left in its trail tens of thousands, if not hundreds of thousands, of current and former underground mineworkers who suffered from debilitating and incurable silicosis and pulmonary tuberculosis TB.

Many mineworkers also died from the diseases.

Railways were built and trade increased.

Child Care South Africa Child Care South Africa, is a registered organisation that provides quality and comprehensive services to children living in Poverty. It was established in and for the past 15 years has grown from strength to strength working in rural areas of the north of KwaZulu Natal [Eshowe]. The organisation… Randburg Methodist Church Helping to alleviate the desperate circumstances of refugees who have suffered xenophobic attacks in Johannesburg.

Our core purpose is to improve the lives of children born with the common birth defect clubfoot. Our outcomes based model is focused on revolutionising clubfoot treatment, building capacity for excellent care, and maximising impact. She soon made her mark in her residence as a popular, caring girl. She loved her university… Nelspruit Community Forum NCF was established in in response to the many people living on and from the streets of Mbombela, a geographical area in Mpumalanga province of South Africa.

Included in our care are men and women, boys and girls, black and white. Academic, sports and life skills programmes are implemented after school hours on the farms by means of our 3… Sunshine Centre Association The Sunshine Association is a dynamic, progressive and innovative Non—Profit organisation in the field of intellectual disability, offering diverse services at many levels.

All developments and services offered by the organisation are a direct response to the needs identified in the communities.

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The 8 passes of the Eastern Cape Highlands The 8 passes of the Eastern Cape Highlands Tweet May The Drakensberg is one of those revered places in South Africa where real adventurers go to get their boots dirty, and are rewarded by scenery and natural splendour of legendary beauty. However, not every holiday can include a 5-day hike with a 1, m climb, and for that reason the Eastern Cape Highlands merits a closer look.

But with a sparse population and challenging topography, the road infrastructure can be hard on a vehicle, and a scenic drive here is still no walk in the park. It is not really possible to make general comments about road conditions, as this is too dependent on recent rains and when last the roads have been graded, so it is probably best to prepare for the worst, and be pleasantly surprised, than the other way round. That said, in general these passes can be tackled in a regular 2×4 vehice, but high clearance is definitely required.

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It’s heaven for whale watching Even if you stay on shore. Mark Cawardine, the wildlife expert, explains: Hermanus, especially, has some of the best land-based whale watching in the world. It involves vast shoals of sardines moving north along the coast of the Eastern Cape and Natal, with numbers immeasurable to man. They are pursued by anything with teeth, a beak — or a camera.

Yes, but do you have urban foxes? Mark Smith, the Man in Seat 61, says:

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